All types of physical activity are divided according to the amount of load, among which there are large (extreme), significant (near-extreme), medium and small. The listed degrees of intensity of loads correspond to different levels of sports qualification: athletes of the ekstraklass (Olympic and world champions), masters of sports of the international class, masters of sports, dischargers, further-persons who are engaged and not engaged in physical culture and, finally, those who resort to physical therapy for the purpose of rehabilitation of certain body functions with the help of dosed motor activity. However, at each level there are limits to their capabilities, limiting physical performance of a person. It should be borne in mind that the factors limiting performance depend on the type of physical activity, which can be divided into six main groups according to the classification of sports.
1. Cyclical sports (cross-country athletics, swimming, cross-country skiing, cycling, short track, speed skating, academic rowing and kayaking, etc.). They require a predominant display of endurance, since they involve repeated repetition of stereotypical cycles of movements. These types of activities cause a large amount of energy to be consumed.
2. Speed and power sports (all track and field jumps and sprint distances, throwing, weightlifting, etc.). A distinctive feature of these sports is explosive, short — time and very intense physical activity. In most cases, speed abilities depend on genetic determinants and do not respond well to both training and the influence of medications.
3. Martial arts (fencing, all types of wrestling, boxing, martial arts, etc.). A characteristic feature of energy expenditure in martial arts is a non-constant, cyclical level of physical activity, depending on the specific conditions of competition and sometimes reaching a very high intensity.
4. Sports games (hockey, soccer, etc.). They are characterized by a constant alternation of intense muscle activity and rest (at times when athletes are not directly involved in game episodes). At the same time, in addition to endurance, coordination of movements and mental stability are of great importance.
5. Complex coordination sports (figure skating, ice skating, sailing, equestrian sports, freestyle skiing, rowing slalom, gymnastics, diving, shooting).
Complex coordination types of physical activity are based on the most subtle elements of movement, which requires considerable endurance and attention. At the same time, physical activity varies widely. For example, to make a difficult jump, you need a lot of explosive power, and when shooting, you need to be able to concentrate and reduce tremors.
6. All-around and combined sports (modern pentathlon, track and field ten-and heptathlon, triathlon, biathlon, etc.). This category of sports is characterized by a combined structure of movements that combine cyclic and acyclic work.
In accordance with other classifications, there are groups of sports in which the activity of athletes is characterized by abstract-compositional thinking (checkers, chess). Such types of physical activity require a special approach to restoring and maintaining both intellectual level and physical fitness.
The motor (physical) qualities of athletes specializing in sports of different orientation are divided into speed abilities, flexibility, strength, coordination abilities and endurance.
The speed abilities of an athlete are understood as a set of functional properties that ensure the performance of motor actions in a minimum time. There are elementary and complex forms of manifestation of speed abilities.
Elementary forms are manifested in the latent time of simple and complex motor reactions, the speed of performing an individual movement with insignificant external resistance, and the frequency of movements.
Complex forms of manifestation of speed abilities in complex motor acts, characteristic of training and competitive activities in various sports, are provided by elementary forms of manifestation of speed in various combinations and in combination with other motor qualities and technical skills.
Flexibility — morphofunctional properties of the movement apparatus and supports that determine the range of movement of an athlete. The term “flexibility” is more appropriate for assessing the total mobility in the joints of the entire body. When it comes to individual joints, it is more correct to talk about their mobility (mobility in the ankle joints, mobility in the shoulder joints, etc.).
There is a distinction between active and passive flexibility. Active flexibility is the ability to perform movements with a large amplitude due to the activity of muscle groups surrounding the corresponding joint. Passive flexibility — the ability to achieve the highest range of motion as a result of external forces. Passive flexibility scores are always higher than active flexibility scores.
Under the strength of a person should be understood as his ability to overcome resistance or counteract it due to the activity of muscles.
Force can manifest itself in the isometric (static) mode of muscle operation , when they do not change their length under tension, and in the isotonic (dynamic) mode, when the tension is associated with a change in muscle length. In the isotonic mode, there are two variants: concentric (overcoming), in which resistance is overcome by muscle tension when their length decreases, and eccentric (yielding), when resistance is counteracted while stretching, increasing the length of the muscles.
There are the following main types of strength qualities: maximum strength, speed strength, and strength endurance.
Under maximum power it is necessary to understand the highest opportunities that the athlete is able to show with the maximum voluntary muscle contraction. The level of maximum strength is manifested in the magnitude of external resistances that the athlete overcomes or neutralizes with full voluntary mobilization of the capabilities of the neuromuscular system. Maximum human strength should not be equated with absolute strength, which reflects the reserve capabilities of the neuromuscular system. Studies show that these capabilities cannot be fully manifested even with extreme volitional stimulation, but can only be detected under special external influences (electrical stimulation of muscles, forced stretching of extremely contracted muscles). Maximum strength largely determines athletic performance in such sports as weightlifting, track and field throwing, jumping and sprinting, various types of wrestling, and gymnastics. The role of maximum strength in sprint swimming, rowing, speed skating, and some sports games is quite large.
Speed Power — this is the ability of the neuromuscular system to mobilize the functional potential to achieve high performance in the shortest possible time. The speed force has a decisive influence on the results in sprint running, sprint swimming (50 m), cycling (track, sprint and git 1000 m from a standstill), speed skating sprint (500 m), fencing, track and field jumping, various types of wrestling, boxing. Speed force should be differentiated depending on the magnitude of the manifestations of force in motor actions, which impose different requirements on the speed and strength capabilities of the athlete. The velocity force exerted under conditions of sufficiently large resistances is usually defined as an explosive force, and the force exerted under conditions of countering relatively small and medium resistances with a high initial velocity is considered to be the starting force. Explosive strength can be crucial when performing an effective start in sprint running or swimming, and starting strength — when performing punches in badminton, boxing, shots in fencing, etc.
Strength endurance is the ability to maintain sufficiently high physical activity for a long time. The level of strength endurance is shown in the athlete’s ability to overcome fatigue, to achieve a large number of repetitions of movements or prolonged application of force in conditions of countering external resistance. Strength endurance is one of the most important qualities that determine the result in many types of cyclical sports competitions. This quality is also very important in gymnastics, various types of wrestling, and alpine skiing.